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- Universal Service Obligation (USO)
- Universal Service Commitment (USC)
- Digital Britain
- Fibre-To-The-Home (FTTH)
- Fibre-To-The-Cabinet (FTTC)
- Next Generation Access (NGA)
- Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL/VDSL2)
- Fibre on Demand (FoD)
A Universal Service Obligation (USO) is the concept that a provider (or group of providers) should be able to provide a minimum level of service in the coverage area to every resident/business. Traditionally this has meant that BT was required to provide an analogue telephone service to every household in the UK, prior to the Digital Economy Bill 2017 passing onto the statute books the USO for Internet access was 0.028 Mbps (28 Kbps i.e. telephone support for a dial-up modem).
As of May 2017 there are many ideas for how the USO may work, but with a law enabling Ofcom to implement a USO it is now done to Ofcom, industry and providers to arrive at a consensus and determine how the service will be funding.
The USO will initially be delivered in a form where those who currently get below 10 Mbps can request a minimum 10 Mbps speed connection, costs and service choices are yet to be determined.
The Universal Service Commitment was an ambition to ensure that every premise in the UK had access to a minimum connection speed of 2 Mbps and was part of the BDUK superfast roll-outs.
The USC is delivered by application for a voucher which can be used to subsidise the installation of various services, with satellite broadband available throughout the UK (apart from those without site of the southern sky, e.g. cannot also receive Sky satellite TV), fixed wireless services and increasingly 4G via a router you plug in at home and with better antenna than most mobile phones gives a lot of people access to basic broadband.
The term 'Digital Britain' originates from the Digital Britain Report undertaken by Lord Carter in 2009. It looked at how Britain should go forward shaping its digital services and economy such as broadband over the coming years. Even though it is many years old it is still a significant piece of work that has shaped almost ten years of broadband progress in the UK.
Fibre in broadband refers to the use of fibre-optic cable. This is the use of a glass or plastic tube which is used to send network signals and is often used in replacement of a copper cable. Fibre has the advantage of being easily upgradable by only changing the equipment connected at each end and it allows data to be sent at very high speeds.
Many broadband services are advertised as 'fibre' but are in reality a partial fibre service, i.e. they feature more fibre than old dial-up and ADSL services but still full short of a true fibre entering your home. The phrase full fibre is often used to refer to services where you have a thin piece of fibre delivering the service.
Fibre-to-the-home, often called fibre to the premises (FTTP) is a new technology which is used for providing broadband services to homes and offices. It uses fibre-optic cable to deliver high speed broadband services which are often referred to as next-generation services.
Often referred to as full fibre. In the UK the term also encompasses fibre to the building (FTTB) where in apartment blocks a fibre is ran to a comms cupboard on each floor and Gigabit Ethernet cable is then run to each apartment.
Fibre to the cabinet is a technology used to provide high speed broadband services. It involves deploying fibre optic cable to a street side cabinet where the connection will usually continue via a copper cable to your home or office. The signal over the copper cable is delivered by VDSL2 generally.
Virgin Media with its cable broadband network can be called FTTC too, but its more accurate notation if fibre to the node (FTTN), since the final cabinet before a property is not connected by fibre but by coax a larger parent cabinet in the neighbourhood will run several child cabinets feeding them via coax cable.
Next generation access is a term used to define the new types of broadband services that are currently being developed and deployed. The idea is to provide much larger capacity to users so that they will effectively be able to use it for whatever they want without the service being limited. Current NGA doesn't quite reach this achievement and is made up of both Fibre to the Cabinet (FTTC) technology and Fibre to the Premises (FTTP).
VDSL is often used to refer to both VDSL and VDSL2 which are international standards to provide high-speed broadband to homes and offices. VDSL2 (ITU G.993.2) can provide speeds of 100Mbps both downstream and upstream over short distances. VDSL2 is being deployed by BT in road side cabinets as part of the fibre to the cabinet (FTTC) service.
New variants of the standard are in trial, so the next few years may see Long Reach VDSL2 that has a greater reach.
Downstream refers to the direction of Internet traffic which is sent from the Internet to the user.
Upstream refers to the direction of Internet traffic which is sent from the user to the Internet.
Two main definitions exist:
- Broadband with download speeds over 24 Mbps. This definition means that ADSL2+ can NEVER count as superfast. This definition is the one that was defined by the Government as part of the original BDUK process.
- Broadband with download speeds over 30 Mbps. This is the EU definition and is used by any broadband projects that have significant EU funding. We generally use the 30 Mbps definition when referring to superfast coverage.
The term generally refers to broadband that connects at 100 Mbps and faster.
This means that Virgin Media cable products are already ultrafast since their minimum speed sold is 100 Mbps.
Ofcom the UK regulator uses a definition of 300 Mbps, which is at odds with the UK Government, industry and the EU.
While there is no official definition, the phrase appears often on twitter or in marketing material and we will use the term for connections that have download speed of over 300 Mbps.
While VDSL2 can provide up to 76 Mbps speeds, G.Fast is the next generation of xDSL that uses even higher frequencies to squeeze more data into the copper telephone lines.
Ideally G.Fast is deployed as a small weatherproof unit on the final telephone pole or in a pavement chamber to support 8 to 16 premises, thus keeping the distance between unit and property to 50 to 100m. Openreach is opting to deploy larger nodes attached to its green street cabinets supporting up to 96 lines, this should mean that those living within a cable distance of 500m of a G.fast enabled cabinet will enjoy a minimum speed of 100 Mbps if they upgrade and those within 100m are likely to see 500 Mbps download speeds.
Vectoring relies on complex mathematics to compensate for the cross-talk (noise) that all the VDSL2 (FTTC) services in a bundle of copper wires generate.
The compensation will reduce the effect of cross-talk that has been seen to lower the speeds the early adopters get on each fibre cabinet.
Vectoring will provide the largest benefits to fairly short lines, i.e. up to 1km but smaller benefits may result for longer lines.
Vectoring is not in use on all Openreach VDSL2 cabinets due to variations in the hardware and the additional costs, but it is referred to as being used tactically, i.e. in areas where the fractional cost will pull a lot of people from just below superfast speeds into the superfast region it may be implemented.
An improved error correction system that Openreach is deploying, around half the fibre cabinets are able to use the new form of error correction, but those based on ECI hardware are awaiting on new software updates to resolve compatibility issues to get G.INP working in both downstream and upstream directions.
Error correction has always been supported by Openreach FTTC, but the G.INP system will mean less loss of download speeds and should mean lower latency, as error correction via interleaving can mean FTTC has worse latency than ADSL2+. Compared to interleaving error correction people report G.INP can give a 5 to 10 Mbps boost.
Openreach in some areas where FTTC is available will if you are willing to pay a high install fee (£1500+) and agree to a three year contract (long contract makes it more suitable for business use) to install FTTP direct to a building.
The install costs are generally less than a dedicated leased line and the monthly costs are a lot lower in the £200 to £300 region providing a 300 Mbps download and 30 Mbps upload service. The service is only available via a handful of providers due to the high costs and the three year contract is a hurdle as Ofcom requires the longest consumer contract to be 24 months.